The approaching days and daily habits will change substantially with the development of technology that will connect everything that surrounds us. With 5G networks, connections will be faster, things that play a role in day-to-day comfort will be connected, with benefits little understood or known to each of us.
With a 20 years experience in IT&C, looking forward to strategical and technical challenges imposed by digital evolution, Virgilius is trying, with analytical spirit, to support ANCOM in its goal of digital transformation. His vision is a digital ANCOM, with safe, interoperable IT distributed systems. In ANCOM there are advanced systems which represent itself a future development base. Virgilius has a Ph.D., Magna cum Laude, had teaching collaborations with Technical University, is certified in ethical hacking, an expert in competitive/ business intelligence, critical infrastructures security and national security information management. Member in National System for Fighting Against Cybercrime, he was involved in cooperation and technical exercises for detection, investigation, response to cyber incidents.
For telecommunication network operators, the fiber optic network and fixed-to-mobile integration work together to open the way to 5G and beyond, or to keep up with the speeds needed to transport huge amounts of data, with minimal delay (milliseconds ) and a massive number of connected elements. It is not long before we have access to services supported by this technology, and in this article, I will briefly review both the benefits and the vulnerabilities that we will have to take into account as IT & C security specialists.
It is not long before we have access to services supported by this technology, and in this article, I will briefly review both the benefits and the vulnerabilities that we will have to take into account as IT & C security specialists.
The following spectrum bands have been identified at European level as priority bands for the early introduction of 5G mobile communications systems in the Union: the 700 MHz (694-790 MHz) band, the 3400-3800 MHz band and the 26 GHz (24.25-27.5 GHz).
•The 700 MHz (694-790 MHz) band is very important for providing extended coverage, especially in economically challenging areas, such as rural, mountainous or other remote areas. The band is adequate for ensuring efficient coverage over wide areas and improved indoor coverage, being suited both for enhancing and improving the quality of mobile communications services offered by 4G technologies and for the deployment of next-generation mobile communications technologies known as 5G or IMT-2020. The frequencies in the 700 MHz band will expand the spectrum resources below 1 GHz already used for the provision of broadband mobile communications services through LTE technology and will facilitate the deployment of 5G networks, and the widespread introduction of innovative digital services.
•The 3400-3800 MHz band is deemed an appropriate primary band for the introduction of 5G services before 2020, as it offers large radio channel bandwidths and a good coverage/capacity balance, ensuring significant capacity growth and supporting enhanced broadband communications, as well as applications requiring low latency and high reliability, such as mission-critical applications (industrial automation and robotics).
•The 26 GHz band is considered to be a “pioneer” band for early 5G harmonization in the EU by 2020, as it offers more than 3 GHz of contiguous spectrum and enables the provision of ultra-high-density and very high-capacity networks over short distances, as well as revolutionary 5G applications and services, which involve very high data transfer rates, increased capacity and very low latency.
Here are the steps taken or in progress to implement the next generation of communications networks in Romania: ANCOM (the local Telecom regulator) has debated and adopted, in a Consultative Council session together with the industry, the national action plan and schedule for the allotment of the 470-790 MHz frequency band as well as the associated regulatory options, in the form of a National Roadmap for the Allotment and Future Use of the 470-790 MHz band. „In the consultation on the 700 MHz bands, we agreed on the schedule for making available the radio spectrum needed to implement 5G technology in Romania. We will complete the whole documentation of this auction, including reserve prices, by July 2019 and we will finalize the spectrum auction no later than December 2019,” said Sorin Grindeanu, president of ANCOM (www.ancom.org.ro English version).
Schedule of actions on the allotment and future use of the 470-790 MHz band
•An essential first step is the timely release of the appropriate radio spectrum for the future development of mobile broadband systems. In order for the 700 MHz band to be available, ANCOM will propose amendments to the NTFA (National Table of Radio Frequency Allocations) and the allocation of the 790 MHz band to the land mobile service, as the band is allocated to digital terrestrial television services at the moment.
•By the end of 2018, ANCOM will develop and adopt a national position on the allotment and future use of radio frequencies available in the 700 MHz, 800 MHz, 1500 MHz, 2600 MHz, 3400-3600 MHz and 26 GHz frequency bands for broadband wireless electronic communications systems.
•Another action with impact on the implementation of 5G technologies is the conclusion of bilateral coordination agreements with the neighboring countries, by 30 June 2019. Moreover, ANCOM will carry out a radio spectrum monitoring campaign in the frequency bands to be auctioned out and will make available to the bidders a report on the status of the radio signals identified on the territory of Romania in these bands, coming from the territory of other states. By 31 July 2019, ANCOM will adopt the decision on the organization of the licensing procedure, namely the establishment of the conditions for awarding the frequency use rights and other necessary normative acts.
•According to the Authority’s proposal and following debates with industry representatives, the auction for awarding frequency use rights in the 700 MHz band and in the other frequency bands envisaged for the provision of fixed and mobile communications within the scope of 5G technology will be finalized by 15 December 2019.
•The National Roadmap for the Allotment and Future Use of the 470-790 MHz Frequency Band is available on www.ancom.org.ro
5G will bring to us benefits and opportunities
The experts announced amazing performance:
•The number of interconnected devices will increase becoming multiplied with hundreds compared to now. This is also in conjunction with IPv6 adoption.
•The volume of data can increase in the future multiplied by thousands compared to the actual moment
•Data processing speed: 10Gbps, but experts estimates that will be even higher.
•Reduced latency: Latency, known as “lag”, is the time it takes for data to arrive from the transmitter to the receiver. Obviously, the smaller it is, the faster the connection will be. At the level of a regular user who uses a device connected to the Internet, the values of this feature via 4G is quite difficult to see, but for the Internet of things, lower latency is a very important aspect. The 5G latency is expected to be 1 millisecond (ms), much lower than the human audio perceptual capacity, and for comparison, the 4G latency is between 20 and 50 ms.
•Reduced energy consumption
We’ve all heard about the exciting new services that 5G will bring, from connected vehicles to smart manufacturing. While some advanced industrial services will take five to ten years to emerge fully, 5G offers plenty of near-term value. However, this is not well known. According to a recent survey by GSMA, consumers think 5G is just a faster version of 4G. In fact, only 25% of people understand the true value that 5G can bring. They’re in for a pleasant surprise.
Applications in: Industry, Entertainment, Safety, Medicine
5G will greatly enhance the mobile user experience. It will enable new services such as cloud-based virtual reality (no more clunky headsets), cloud PC (it gives your phone the same processing capabilities as a laptop) and ultra-high definition video, wherever you go. 5G will improve the efficiency of spectrum use by tenfold and network capacity by 20 to 30 times, allowing operators to provide consumers with better service at a lower price. There is no doubt that 5G is already delivering economic value for consumers, telecoms operators and vertical industries. 5G will be deployed in about 110 markets by 2025, according to GSMA.
•The listed technical features will make it possible to access high-speed mobile internet even in crowded areas: concerts, festivals, sports events without being affected by speed limitations, interference, or signal instability.
•For example, a download of 4K resolution movies will be a matter of seconds.
•On the other hand, live TV shows and sports events will become real immersive, augmented or virtual visual experiences, even for those who will not personally participate in real life, offering the possibility of virtual, sensory participation in real events. Sounds good, right? Well, experiments and demonstrations have shown that it is possible, and the penetration of these experiences in everyday life will also depend on the absorption and consumption capacity of end users. In the testing period, an operator from Romania made an experiment with a rock concert with a hologram!
•In November 2018, the UK’s largest operator BT/EE broadcast the Wembley Cup Final live in high definition over a commercial 5G network. Because 5G is so fast and experiences so little delay in signal transmission, BT was able to produce complex effects that made the game more interesting to viewers, but it could do all the production remotely, without having to drag heavy equipment to the game site.
•Going beyond the TV screen, 5G-enabled virtual reality (VR) applications will also let sports fans watch games from the perspective of their favorite players – or that of the ball itself. This will completely change how we experience sports while opening up new revenue streams for telecoms operators and other companies along the value chain.
INTERNET OF THINGS and INTERNET OF EYES
Dynamic traffic monitoring, traffic management, and public security (so-called Internet of Eyes concept) will be possible or expanded: object detection and positioning in real-time, and we will also witness an explosion of applications and frameworks dedicated to smart city, smart home, smart building, because technology will be the backbone of IoT (Internet of Things), connecting objects around us in ways that we would not have thought possible.
We will assimilate technologies of the future that will allow independent vehicles to interact with traffic lights, infrastructure, communicate with each other, based on systems with Artificial Intelligence or Augmented. In addition, sensors integrated into roads, railways and flight paths will communicate with each other and intelligent vehicles to improve infrastructure control and critical services.
The new generation of network will produce another revolution in business processes. High speeds and short response time will ensure the mass deployment of robots and the Internet of Things. Modern business has long been digitized and needs a new round of productivity. And 5G has all the chances to do it. Despite the whole hype about the Internet of Things, it is not yet possible to combine wireless objects into a single network. The lack of a single IoT standard prevents this. Wearable devices work through Bluetooth, smart homes – via Wi-Fi, in other segments, several protocols are used at once. 5G is especially useful in those IOT segments where the objects are heavy and remote (for example, in agriculture) or a fast reaction is required (for example, for driverless vehicles). There are also applications in the field of agriculture where moisture sensors, automatic fertilizer distributors, artificial intelligence entities specializing in predictions will intervene for the regulation, control, and maximization of results. Moving, self-contained, remote-controlled flying vehicles and their traffic management will also be driven by systems that communicate large amounts of data, but especially in real time. We can say that 5G will multiply the known advantages of the Internet of Things and will bring its widespread. The high data transfer rate in 5G networks will sharply increase the load on the infrastructure. This will require significant efforts and investments from mobile operators. The mass introduction of IoT will enrich the suppliers of cloud technologies: smart devices will produce huge amounts of data and they will need to be stored somewhere.
Internet of skills
The expansion could exist according to tests and applications in the field of cloud-controlled robotics, more precisely the control of a remote robot. Tests and demonstrations of medical operations, combined with virtual reality, have been carried out to create touch-based internet, such as the remote and real-time transmission of touch sensation. Doctors will operate patients at a distance. They will use virtual reality helmets and special gloves, which will give them the feeling of grabbing the patient, but they can also act. Using 5G, China Mobile has helped turn ambulances into mobile hospitals. Doctors at Zhejiang University School of Medicine in China can operate ultrasound equipment remotely through VR glasses, using a robotic arm to examine patients in ambulances as well as other locations. 5G is crucial here, as any delay in signal transmission can be disastrous for the patient, and only 5G networks are stable enough to allow doctors to perform such delicate procedures remotely. In January 2019, doctors in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian performed the world’s first remote operation using a 5G network transmission. The successful operation (performed on a pig) marks the advent of 5G remote surgery, laying the groundwork for a wealth of innovative new clinical applications in the future. One day, 5G networks will connect patients in remote areas with doctors around the world. People in the Gobi desert and Arctic Circle will have access to the same level of care they could get in London or Dubai. Carriers are also launching 5G pilot projects that connect students in poorer regions with some of the world’s best teachers. Although high-definition video and VR can’t be reliably delivered through 4G networks, high powered 5G connections could benefit the children in underdeveloped regions, giving students a chance to receive a good education.
It is estimated that by 2023, 20% of the world’s population will have 5G coverage and 5G technology will generate $ 1,200 billion worth of business by 2026.
Talking about vulnerabilities and associated risks, I identify at least two of their origins: – one related to the application level, vulnerabilities associated with new types of services and applications – one related to the technical aspects of the technologies themselves, management modules or protocols.
Thus, linked to the first category:
It can easily extrapolate the current known situation of malware infection of multiple IP devices or networks for DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attacks: increasing the number of interconnected devices will increase the critical mass of potential devices taken over in a Botnet network to initiate stronger attacks from even greater than present targets or potential targets, and attentively at a speed perhaps thousands of times higher! From a technological point of view, attach rejection equipment will have to keep pace, and physical detection, likely based on artificial intelligence, will need to have an adapted response capacity.
Information theft can reach immense levels: if we are talking about extortion of information and theft of personal data, traffic intercepts for password decryption or confidential information, in the case of the 4.0 industrial revolution that brings virtual prototyping and sending the online model directly on the manufacturing line, a man-in-the-middle attack could mean the theft of the model (intellectual property, industrial espionage) or worse, its distortion or replacement, the change of features before the physical execution begins. The results and negative effects can be immeasurable.
– Real-time intercepting/modifying data from traffic sensors, smart building, autonomous vehicle or flight controls would bring disasters and crimes to catastrophic or compromising critical infrastructure and endangering many lives. – The real-time intercepting / modifying of data traffic associated with remote operation is easy to imagine as effects, and unfortunately not very difficult to achieve, given the technology offers huge speed and response time close to zero.
Linked to the second category
ENISA already studied and made it public in a study “Signalling Security in Telecom SS7/Diameter/5G” (https://www.enisa.europa.eu/publications/signallingsecurity-in-telecom-ss7-diameter-5g):
•SS7 attacks can be complex as attackers are gaining more and more knowledge and they have had the time to develop effective attack scenarios. Basic protection will cover probably the majority of the attacks but will leave room for the complex or targeted attacks that can really cause damage at the social, economic or political level (e.g. espionage, etc.). As a conclusion, we can mention that in terms of SS7 minimum security measures are adopted by the majority of the providers. This conclusion is also reinforced by industry, through different industry papers, findings or other materials. Nonetheless, one problem arises from the fact that basic security measures are providing only a basic level of security. Also, SS7 infrastructure is quite old in some cases and not all equipment supports the adoption of security measures, not even the basic ones. This is also confirmed by the technical and cost-related constraints explained in the study.
•Industry’s focus on Diameter security has come later than in the SS7 case and has certainly not reached maturity yet. Diameter is derived from RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) and provides authentication, authorization, and accounting protocol for computer networks. In terms of design, it has borrowed many concepts from SS7, along with its vulnerabilities. Being a purely IP based protocol, there is an increased risk in the possibility of an intruder gaining access through hacking. The more knowledge the attacker has on Internet-related protocols the more chances they have to succeed. This makes it in theory, simpler to exploit than SS7.
Considering the above, the conclusion might be that special attention must be granted to 5G security. As mobile plays a huge role in our digital society, assuring our everyday digital infrastructure in support of the economy itself, the stakes are high. Older mobile generations have proven their drawbacks in terms of security and the same approaches cannot be repeated anymore. As Diameter related vulnerabilities are beginning to be publicly uncovered the future use of this protocol or similar approached should be avoided. Carriers will need a new signaling architecture that can address the impact of introducing billions of roaming and static devices, the subscriber behavior, and bandwidth requirements, and new applications. ENISA recommendations are: “while work is being done in addressing SS7 and Diameter attacks, only a small portion of the protocols has been studied. It is expected that new vulnerabilities shall be discovered. In addition, tools to scan and potentially attack mobile networks are now freely available. 5G, the new mobile generation, is still under development. Early releases from some manufacturers are available but the standards are still in their infancy. Nevertheless, there is a certain risk of repeating history. Given the improvements that 5G will bring (more users, more bandwidth, etc.) having the same security risks can be extremely dangerous.”
Security Challenges in SDN and NFV
SDN centralizes the network control platforms and enables programmability in communication networks. These two disruptive features, however, create opportunities for cracking and hacking the network. For example, the centralized control will be a favorable choice for DoS attacks, and exposing critical Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) to unintended software can render the whole network down. The SDN controller modiﬁes ﬂow rules in the data path, hence the controller trafﬁc can be easily identiﬁed. This makes the controller a visible entity in the network rendering it the favorite choice for DoS attacks. The centralization of network control can also make the controller a bottleneck for the whole network due to saturation attacks. Even though NFV is highly important for future communication networks, it has basic security challenges such as conﬁdentiality, integrity, authenticity and non-repudiation. From the point of view of its use in mobile networks, the current NFV platforms do not provide proper security and isolation virtualized telecommunication services. One of the main challenges persistent to the use of NFV in mobile networks is the dynamic nature of Virtual Network Functions (VNFs) that leads to conﬁguration errors and thus security lapses. The main challenge that needs immediate attention is that the whole network can be compromised if the hypervisor is hijacked.
Security solutions for SDN and NFV
Due to the logically centralized control plane with global network view and programmability, SDN facilitates quick threat identiﬁcation through a cycle of harvesting intelligence from the network resources, states and ﬂows. Therefore, the SDN architecture supports highly reactive and proactive security monitoring, trafﬁc analysis and response systems to facilitate network forensics, the alteration of security policies and security service insertion. Consistent network security policies can be deployed across the network due to global network visibility, whereas security systems such as ﬁrewallsand Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) can be used for speciﬁctrafﬁc by updating the ﬂow tables of SDN switches. The security of VNFs can be enhanced through a security orchestrator in correspondence with the architecture that provides security not only to the virtual functions in a multi-tenant environment, but alsoto the physical entities of a telecommunication network. Using trusted computing, remote veriﬁcation and integrity checking of virtual systems and hypervisors is proposed to provide hardware-based protection to private information and detect corrupt software in virtualized environments.
Security Challenges in Communication Channels
Before 5G networks, mobile networks had dedicated communication channels based on GTP and IPsec tunnels. The communication interfaces, such as X2, S1, S6, S7, which are used only in mobile networks, require signiﬁcant level of expertise to attack these interfaces. However, SDN-based 5Gnetworks will not have such dedicated interfaces but rather common SDN interfaces. The openness of these interfaces will increase the possible set of attackers. The communications SDN based 5G mobile networks can be categorized into three communication channels i.e. data channel, control channel, and inter-controller channel. In current ISDN systems, these channels are protected by using TLS (transport layer Security)/ SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) sessions. However, TLS/SSL sessions are highly vulnerable to IP layer attacks, SDN Scanner attacks and lack strong authentication mechanisms.
Security Solutions for Communication Channels
5G needs proper communication channel security not only to prevent the identiﬁed security threats but also to maintain the additional advantages of SDN such as centralized policy management, programmability and global network state visibility. IPsec is the most commonly used security protocol to secure the communication channels in present-day telecommunication networks such as 4G-LTE. It is possible to use IPsec tunneling to secure 5G communication channels with slight modiﬁcations. Moreover, the security for LTE communications is provided by integrating various security algorithms, such as authentication, integrity and encryption. However, the main challenges in such existing security schemes are high resource consumption, high overhead and lack of coordination. Therefore, these solutions are not viable for critical infrastructure communication in 5G. Thus a higher level of security for critical communication is achievable by utilizing new security mechanisms such as physical layer security adopting Radio-Frequency (RF) ﬁngerprinting, using asymmetric security schemes and dynamically changing security parameters according to the situation. Similarly, end-to-end user communication can be secured by using cryptographic protocols like HIP. Here is a table with the security challenges in 5G technologies.
New Trust Model and Identity Management
In legacy mobile communications networks, Telecom networks are responsible for authenticating a user for network access only. A trust model with two elements, between users and networks, is formed. The authentication between user and services are not covered by the networks. However, in 5G networks, a trust model with an additional element, the vertical service provider, is a favored possible design. Networks may cooperate with service providers to carry out an even secure and more efficient identity management.
Hybrid Authentication Management Challenges
5G networks are open platforms with a plethoraof services. Smart transport, smart grid, industrial IoT are some of them. Both networks and service providers face challenges in making access & service authentication simpler and less costly. Three authentication models would possibly co-exist in 5G to address needs of different businesses.
•Authentication by networks only
Service authentication incurs significant amount of costs to service providers. Service providers can pay networks for service authentication so users will be able to access multiple services once they complete a single authentication. This frees users from the cumbersome task of getting service grant repeatedly when accessing different services.
•Authentication by service providers only
On the other hand, networks may rely on the proven authentication capabilities from vertical industries and exempt devices from radio network access authentication, which can help the networks lower down operating cost.
•Authentication by both networks and service providers
For some of the services, a legacy model might be adopted. Networks take care of network access, and service providers deal with service access.
New 5G vulnerabilities discovered and made public in February 2019
A group of researchers from Purdue University and the University of Iowa presented their findings Tuesday at the Network and Distributed System Security Symposium in San Diego. They note that their discoveries, first reported by TechCrunch, are particularly concerning since the 5G standard was specifically developed to better protect against these types of attacks. “We were really surprised that though 5G promises enhanced security and privacy, it cannot guarantee that level, because it inherits many security policies and subprotocols from the previous generations, which are more error-prone,” says Purdue’s Syed Rafiul Hussain, one of the paper’s authors. “It opens the door for an adversary to exploit these weaknesses.” The researchers, who also uncovered other vulnerabilities in the 4G network last year, describe a series of new protocol weaknesses that could be used in a variety of attacks. An exploit the researchers call Torpedo underlies the others; it preys on flaws in the “paging protocol” used to notify devices about incoming communications. “Once a user’s IMSI is exposed, an adversary can carry out more sophisticated attacks.” [Syed Rafiul Hussain, Purdue University] An idle device checks in with the nearest cellular base station for these pages at set increments, so it isn’t killing
battery life by checking constantly. But the researchers found that this predictability can be exploited. If an attacker wants to determine if a target is nearby, they can initiate a quick series of phone calls to a victim’s device to “sniff,” or evaluate, the paging protocol communications. Both 4G and 5G have built-in protections against this type of surveillance, but researchers found that these obfuscation efforts fall short. An attacker can spot patterns in the paging messages that reveal which base station the device is closest to, and confirm that the victim is in the area. Torpedo attacks could also allow a hacker to manipulate a target’s paging channel to add or block paging messages, resulting in victims missing messages and calls. A hacker could also use the technique to spoof certain kinds of messages, like a fabricated Amber Alert message. Butan attacker can use Torpedo as a stepping stone in an „IMSI-cracking attack” that could allow a hacker to ascertain a victim’s „international mobile subscriber identity” number. The smartphone’s subscriber identity number can be used to track a device more precisely, or monitor communications through rogue devices that impersonate cellphone towers—often called stingrays or „IMSI catchers.” While stingrays have been a known privacy threat for years now, they are still prevalent around the US, deployed by law enforcement and attackers alike. IMSI numbers are encrypted in 4G and 5G networks to protect them from such attacks, but the researchers again found that the protections are inadequate. They also found a carrier implementation issue, dubbed Piercer, that could expose IMSI numbers another way on the 4G network. They say that one US carrier, which they’re not making public, is currently vulnerable to Piercer attacks. „Once a user’s IMSI is exposed, an adversary can carry out more sophisticated attacks including tracking the location and intercepting phone calls and SMS messages of the user,” Purdue’s Hussain says. „Average consumers are at the risk of exposing their privacy to malicious third parties who sell location data and other private information.” With the exception of the Piercer flaws, the vulnerabilities the researchers discovered would need to be fixed above the individual carrier level by the industry group GSMA, which oversees development of mobile data standards including 4G and 5G. GSMA is aware of the research and is considering fixes for some of the issues, but disputes the practicality of the attacks. According to GSMA: „The findings suggest that a hacker could theoretically target a subscriber’s IMSI or unique identifier on a 4G network by sending multiple messages in quick succession and then monitoring the network to identify increased traffic against a specific subscriber,” „However, this approach in reality would have to be performed in a specific time slot and be based on trial and error, which would be an exhaustive and time-consuming process in order to be successful. The GSMA is working with 3GPP to consider attack detection options, if the threat level warrants and whether modifications could be made to the standards.” The statement also disputes that the 5G network would be vulnerable to the researchers’ attacks. GSMA says the work is „based on an early version of the standard that has since changed. This security enhancement illustrates how security levels continue to evolve and improve through standardization.” The researchers say that the improvements still do not resolve the problem, though. „We checked the change requests and it seems that even the new change is vulnerable to Torpedo attack in 5G,”. All of this isn’t to say that the 5G standard should just be scrapped. It still has many benefits, including security benefits, that make the arrival of the network an important and productive thing. But security flaws in telephony standards need to be taken seriously and resolved, and there’s a mixed record of that in the telecom industry. Fundamental protocol flaws, like those in the historic SS7 backbone standard, have remained unresolved for decades and led to increasing risk to end users. The more pressure telecoms feel to resolve these flaws, the better.
1. Official Site l ANCOM: ww w.ancom.org.ro 2. VirgiliusStanciulescu – Cybersecurity Forum: 5G beneficiisivulnerabilitati 3. VirgiliusStanciulescu – Cybersecurity Congress, Sibiu &Porentruy, 2018: 5G vulnerabilities and new attack strategies and countermeasures 4. VirgiliusStanciulescu – Cybersecurity Congress, Firenze 2019: 5G vulnerabilities and new attack strategies and countermeasures 5. 5G Security: Forward ThinkingHuawei White Paper 6. 5G Security: Analysis of Threats and Solutions 7. Ijaz Ahmad, Tanesh Kumar, MadhusankaLiyanage, Jude Okwuibe, Mika Ylianttila, Andrei Gurtovk, Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Finland 8. https://www.go4it.ro/telefoane-mobile/aufost-descoperite-noi-vulnerabilitati-in-retelele-4gsi-5g.-toate-dispozitivele-pot-fi-accesate-de-catrehackeri-17890274/ 9. World Economic Forum: https://www.weforum.org/ agenda/2019/01/here-s-how-5g-will-revolutionize-thedigital-world 10. World Economic Forum: https://www.weforum. org/agenda/2019/02/heres-what-5g-will-bring-in-2019/ 11. New Line Technologies: https://newline.tech/blog/ what-will-the-era-of-5g-bring-us/ 12. ENISA: https://www.enisa.europa.eu/publications/ signalling-security-in-telecom-ss7-diameter-5g 13. WIRED: https://www.wired.com/story/torpedo-4g5g-network-attack-stingray/ 14. TECHCRUNCH: https://techcrunch. com/2019/02/24/new-4g-5g-security-flaws/
Author: Virgilius Stanciulescu, President’s counselor for IT&C, ANCOM